Sani-al-Mulk’s illustrations for “One thousand and One nights” – (c. 1853).
Mirza Abol-Hassan Khan Ghaffari Kashani, also known as ‘Abol-Hassan the Second’ and ‘Sani-al-Mulk’, is considered the first teacher of European style of painting in Iran.
Son of the early 19th century painter and graphic artist, Mirza Mohammad Ghaffari, Sani al-Mulk was born in 1814 in Kashan. Master Mehr-Ali Esfahani, the famous painter and naqqashbashi (grand painter) of Fath-Ali Shah of Qajar tutored him in painting. Sani-al-Mulk passed away in 1866 at the age of 52.
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